Vol. 3, No. 4 (July 2015)


The Phraseology of it Lexical Bundles in the Academy: The Case of Applied Linguistics and Chemistry

Dr. Hassan Jalali, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching in the Islamic World (FLTJ), 3(4), 5-12.      Download Full Text


Lexical bundles have attracted researchers in corpus linguistics in the last decade. While most previous studies have been mainly concerned with variations in the use of these word sequences across different registers and a number of disciplines, very few have focused on the use of anticipatory it bundles within some key genres of academy. To address possible disciplinary and generic variations in the use of such bundles, this study chose to investigate, compare, and contrast range, frequency, and function of these word clusters in research articles of applied linguistics and analytical chemistry and master and doctoral theses in applied linguistics. The results indicated that anticipatory it bundles could be regarded as a distinctive characteristic of academic writing across disciplines and genres. At the same time, each discipline or academic genre was drawing almost on a particular set of bundles in the development of its discourse. Functional analysis of lexical bundles also showed that generally anticipatory it lexical bundles served a wide variety of functions in all categories of written academic discourse. Some anticipatory it lexical bundles commonly used by students in their postgraduate writing did not count as bundles in research articles. The findings of this study call for a robust pedagogical focus on anticipatory it lexical bundles. They can also stress a more genre-focused EAP (English for academic purposes).

Key words: Genre; Analytical chemistry; Applied Linguistics; Research Articles; Postgraduate Writing; Anticipatory it Lexical Bundles


An Investigation of Factors Affecting Iranian EFL Learners' Participation Patterns in Foreign Language Classroom Interactions: A Grounded Theory Approach

Dr. Ahmad Reza EghtesadiAbbaszadegan Institute for Educational Research, Mashhad, Iran
Dr. Gholamreza ZareianHakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

Mr. Omid MallahiHakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran

International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching in the Islamic World (FLTJ), 3(4), 13-20.      Download Full Text


It is generally believed that participation in classroom interactions is one the most essential factors for the successful learning of a second/foreign language. Accordingly, the present study attempted to investigate the factors affecting Iranian EFL learners’ participation patterns in classroom interactions. The researchers used a qualitative approach (i.e., grounded theory) in collecting and analyzing the necessary data. The participants of the study were 30 EFL students from a variety of levels (B.A, M.A and Ph.D.) and backgrounds. Moreover, the use was made of procedures like conducting interviews, open-ended surveys and observations. The data were analyzed using the MAXQDA software and based on the three coding processes of grounded theory research: open coding, axial coding and selective coding. On the whole, five main categories of factors were identified that were believed to affect the students’ participatory behavior: (1) student-related factors, (2) nature of subject/topic, (3) teacher/instructor predisposition, (4) classroom environment and (5) sociocultural aspects/issues. As for the tentative theory of the study which shows the interrelationships among the factors identified, the researchers turned to the ideas of classroom ecology and suggested that “classroom ecology possibly determines the nature and quality of Iranian EFL learners’ participation patterns in classroom interactions”. Finally, the findings of the study are discussed with reference to the literature and the pedagogical implications, limitations and some suggestions for further research are presented.

Key words: Classroom interaction; Iranian EFL learners; Grounded theory


Age and Second Language Acquisition: Behavioral Outcomes and Neurological Underpinnings

Dr. Mohsen ShirazizadehAlzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Dr. Hossein Navidinia, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching in the Islamic World (FLTJ), 3(4), 21-26.      Download Full Text


This present article reviewed the behavioral outcomes and neurological underpinnings of the effect of age on second language acquisition. To this end, some important behavioral studies investigating the effect of age on ultimate attainment in learning a second language (L2) were first reviewed. In the next section, some neurological studies were reviewed to see if the behavioral consequences of aging have any neurological basis. The results of this scrutiny indicated that most neurological studies are in support and in line with the findings of behavioral studies. That is, the neurolinguistic studies also showed that there is a significant difference between early and late second language learners with respect to brain structure and activation patterns. Some confounding variables in the study of age of acquisition were also touched upon to make the readers cautious in generalizing the reviewed findings. In the end, some explanations and justifications for the obtained conclusions were offered.

Key words: Critical period; Age of acquisition; Neurolinguistics



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